Simrat Kaur, Brad Reddersen
Abstract: The polyphyletic group of photosynthetic organisms which are commonly called algae have acquired evolutionary significant repertoire of genes from diverse groups of microorganisms including heterotrophic bacteria. Algae occur in different colours, morphologies, sizes, and habitats. The mosaic genomes of algae code for cellular and bio-chemical machinery to support their existence in varied habitats ranging from open oceans to oligotrophic lakes, from polar caps to the hotsprings and from pristine waters of mountains to anthropogenic polluted urban black waters. The implacable impacts of human activities on environment are causing undeviating ecosystem imbalances and depletion of resources. The formations and recycling of the natural resources is driven through bio-geochemical process which involve vivid biological diversity. Microalgae play vital role to support various ecological functions. Due to their ability to efficiently sequester CO2 and grow rapidly in both fresh and marine waters, the microalgae offer sustainable solutions to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the environment. At the cutting edge of environmental crisis are the global water shortages and environment pollution which includes eutrophication due to excessive nutrient discharges and the presence of emerging pollutants. The bioremediation of blooming waste waters by means of exploiting vast diversity of microalgae can play central role in attaining sustainable development of the renewable and non-conventional resources. Microalgae can efficiently capture inorganic nutrients such as N and P, the synthesis of which heavily rely on the consumption of fossil fuels. The world wide vicious circle of fossil fuel consumption, nutrient depletions, and food, feed and water shortages could be freed by utilizing microalgae. The paper addresses the role of microalgae in achieving the sustainable development goals for ecosystem restoration by adopting circular economy approach.
Keywords: Algae, biodegradation, carbon capture, microplastics, wastewater.
Date Published: June 13, 2022 DOI: 10.11159/ijepr.2022.002View Article